Acne Vulgaris presents different types of acne lesions: blackheads, whiteheads, papules, pustules, nodules, and cysts:
Beyond Acne Vulgaris, there are different kinds of acne conditions, including Acne Fulminans and Acne Mechanica.
Melasma is a very common patchy brown, tan, or blue-grey facial skin discoloration, usually seen in women in the reproductive years. It typically appears on the upper cheeks, upper lip, forehead, and chin of women 20-50 years of age. It is uncommon in males. It is thought to be primarily related to external sun exposure, external hormones like birth control pills, and internal hormonal changes as seen in pregnancy. Most people with melasma have a history of daily or intermittent sun exposure, although heat is also suspected to be an underlying factor. Melasma is most common among pregnant women, especially those of Latin and Asian descents. People with olive or darker skin, like Hispanic, Asian, and Middle Eastern individuals, have higher incidences of melasma.
Prevention is primarily aimed at facial sun protection and sun avoidance. Treatment requires regular sunscreen application, medications such as 4% hydroquinone and other fading creams.
Freckles are small brown spots on your skin, often in areas that get sun exposure. In most cases, freckles are harmless. They form as a result of overproduction of melanin, which is responsible for skin and hair color (pigmentation). Overall, freckles come from ultraviolet (UV) radiation stimulation.
There are two categories of freckles: ephelides and solar lentigines. Ephelides are the common type most people think of as freckles. Solar lentigines are dark patches of skin that develop during adulthood. This includes freckles, aging spots, and sunspots. The two types of freckles can look similar but differ in other ways such as their development.
These are several different types of scars including:
Recommended treatment for traumatic scar
Recommended treatment for acne scar:
There are a number of reasons why wrinkles occur, the main one being less production of the proteins collagen and elastin. Both are important proteins for enabling the skin to ‘bounce back’ from a facial movement such as smiling or frowning. As we age, the skin isn’t as readily able to produce collagen and elastin, which therefore makes wrinkles more likely.
While lines occur naturally throughout life, certain lifestyle choices hasten and worsen their appearance. The most obvious are smoking and excessive sunbathing without the use of SPF protection.
Skin tags are benign and cause no symptoms. These harmless growths of skin can be right on the skin surface or seem to sprout from a thin stalk of skin and hang off the body. Also called cutaneous tags, soft fibromas, acrochordons, and fibroepithelial polyps, skin tags are mostly flesh-coloured growths, although some may be darker in colour.
Skin tags are very common. About 25 percent of people will develop skin tags, usually starting after the age of 50. Skin tags are more common among people with diabetes as well as people who are overweight or obese — conditions that often go together.
The friction created by skin rubbing against skin, a side effect of being overweight, is what causes skin tags in certain people, and explains why skin tags often grow in body folds. Skin tags are usually more annoying to look at than anything else, but understanding what they are, and aren’t, can be reassuring. And though what causes skin tags isn’t always known, skin tag treatment is pretty straightforward — they are easily removed.
Recommended treatment: CO2 laser removal (click link)
Milia is the medical term for small, keratin-filled cysts that can be seen in all age groups. These cysts can be solitary (milium) or appear in clusters (milia). Milia form as a consequence of the skin’s localized inability to naturally exfoliate. Dead skin cells—composed predominantly of keratin, a protein also found in hair and nails—build up underneath, causing a bump to form. Unlike acne, milia are cysts, do not form from a pore and typically do not get inflamed or develop redness or swelling.
Xanthelasma are cholesterol-filled plaques that usually appear on the eyelids. About half of people with xanthelasma have elevated levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, or other blood fats. About 50% of adults with xanthelasma have some type of hyperlipidemia. The plaques are especially common in people with inherited disorders of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) metabolism.
Because xanthelasma are associated with hyperlipidemia, which in turn is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it’s important for anyone with xanthelasma to have a fasting lipid panel done. You should also know your family history of cardiovascular disease. If your lipid panel is normal but you have a strong family history of coronary artery disease, you might ask your clinician to check levels of other lipoproteins that influence cardiovascular risk, such as apolipoprotein B, which may be elevated despite a normal lipid panel.
If you have hyperlipidemia, exercise and a diet low in saturated and Trans fat are essential; your clinician may also prescribe a medication, such as a statin. Treating the underlying lipid condition sometimes but not always reduces the size of xanthelasma. If you don’t have a strong family history of heart disease, you may be one of the many people with xanthelasma who have no lipid abnormality. For the sake of overall cardiovascular health, you should still pay attention to exercise and diet. But for you and others in your situation, xanthelasma are mostly a cosmetic problem. They’re usually not itchy or uncomfortable, but they may coalesce and become unsightly. And they don’t go away on their own.